We have read in our history texts about Sultan Mohammad Gazanavi’s rapacious attacks on Bharat and his wrecking of Somnath Temple, on the shore of Gujarat. But, unfortunately, our history texts have hardly mentioned the ferocious fight given to him by Kashmiri king Sangramraaj and Gazanavi being defeated twice by the Kashmiri army.
With Queen Didda’s demise, a new dynasty came to rule Kashmir. The Kashtriyas from the Lohar dynasty, to which she herself belonged before her marriage, became ruler of Kashmir. (1003 CE – 1101 CE). King Sangramraaj ruled Kashmir for twenty-five years from 1003 CE to 1028 CE and wrote an immortal chapter of bravery and victory.
Gazanavi, who had crushed Iran, Turkestan, and some parts of Bharat, had no choice but to swallow the bitter taste of vanquishing and post 1030 CE, never returned back to Bharat.
Sangramraaj had correctly recognized aggressiveness in Mahmood of Gazanavi’s warfare. His barbaric conduct full of ruse, artifice, rapes, and wrecking of places of worship was completely grasped by Sangramraaj and hence, he ordered for tightening the security on borders of Kashmir.
Al-Baruni, the renowned historian of the era has mentioned the contribution of natives on the border region of Kashmir on securing the borders,” The people of Kashmir are substantially anxious regarding their own robustness. Hence, they keep unwavering concentration on the entry points as well as pathways directed towards it. As a result, it is immensely difficult to develop any business ties with them… Currently, they do not let any Hindu enter inside the territory, thus, letting the others, is a far-fledged thought.”
Mohammed Gazanavi attacked Bharat numerous times and this brutish person devastated many towns. After destroying the Kangra’s Nagarkot, he eyed demolishing the neighboring state of Kashmir and hence, attacked Kashmir in 1015 CE. His army was stationed in Tausi ground near Lohkot fort, on the border of Kashmir. Any small tributary was known as Tausi. There was a small Tausi (tributary) flowing towards river Jhelum (Vitasta) and thus, the ground adjoining it had been named as Tausi Medan.
The vital information about Mahmoud’s movement reached Sangramraaj through his efficient Intelligence service and a team of Spy as well as very alert security arrangements on the border. Immediately, the Kashmiri army marched under the leadership of proficient commander Tung. Adjoining Kashmir state, the state of Kabul was ruled by Hindu king Trilochanpal. He too reached Tausi ground with his powerful army and enclosed Mohammed Gazanavi from all sides.
After being massively hit by the Kashmiri army, Mahmood unwillingly accepted Sangramraaj‘s robustness but his heart and soul were immensely wishing for winning Kashmir, hence once again in 1021 CE, he marched with larger and more powerful armed strength towards Kashmir. This time too, he took shelter inside Fort of Lohkot.
Trilochanpal, the king of Kabul, surrounded him from all directions and began attacking him fiercely. Mahmood was much better prepared this time and the wounds of the defeat of last time were yet to be healed. But, Trilochanpal and his army were in a feral mood and Sangramraaj too immediately sent groups in support. This led to another colossal defeat of Mahmood at the hands of the Kashmiri and Kabul armies.
After these two heartbreaking incidents, Mahmood of Gazanavi vowed never to look towards Kashmir ever in the future. Muslim historian Nazim has mentioned in “Mahmood of Gazani”- “Mohammed Gazanavi attacked Kashmir, again in 1021, to re-achieve his lost prestige and take revenge of gone by glory.
He again traveled through the old route but his journey was blocked by Lohkot fort. After a month Mahmood retreated back with the fear of failure one more time. This defeat enlightened him about the unparalleled solidity of Kashmir and he dug into the idea of conquering Kashmir, forever.”
Prior to these two battles, in 1008, Mahmood had attacked the kingdom of King Anandpal, the Khokhar community-based in Southern Kashmir, who had stood up in support of Anandpal. The Hindu women sold their precious jewels to raise funds for helping Anandpal.
King Sangramraaj’s tale of heroic strength should have been written with Golden ink on pages of history but unfortunately, the truthful history has not been portrayed till now and the saga of such unmatched heroism has remained unsung.
The saga of victorious legacy of ancient kings of Kashmir (Part-8)