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Maughals enter Kashmir – 4

Post Shahjahan’s death, his son Aurangzeb coronated himself on the throne of Delhi. His nefarious motive of turning Bharatvarsh into “Dar -ul – Islam” erupted wildly. During his forty-nine years of the regime, he sent Fourteen Subedars to Kashmir to fulfill his intention. Out of all of them, Subedar Iftaar Khan (1671-75) turned out to be the most “faithful” to Aurangzeb as he tormented Kashmiri Hindus exceptionally awfully.

Emperor Aurangzeb was atrociously fanatic and he tore apart the highly talked about, ostensibly secular perception of the Mughals. His sword pulled out from the scabbard, creating havoc with barbarism on Hindus. He specifically targeted the Hindu Brahmins, as he believed they inspired every Hindu to be dedicated to nationalism and religious pride, and hence, all efforts of complete Islamisation have not turned successful. The leaven land that produced persons, who stand erect from ashes, each time after facing unimaginable brutality, must be extinct.

However, it is significant to note that Emperor Aurangzeb perceived and lived with a different affinity than his forefathers, in regards to his relationship with Kashmir. Kashmir was a region, rich and cultured, at the entry point from neighboring Islamic states and was the route to fulfilling the dream of Dar-Ul-Islam.

Other than that, there was no love lost with Kashmir. Hence, he visited the region only once in his lifetime.(1664-65) and he resided there for three months.
Francoise Bernier, the French physician, and traveler who accompanied him on his sole endeavor to Kashmir, has noted – Emperor Aurangzeb predictably tried to impose prudishness, and banned bare legs, Opium cultivation, and popular theatre.

But, Kashmir simply ignored the mandate!!!
Bernier has also mentioned that – The Kashmiris were witty and intelligent, extremely active and industrious as well as superior in Science and Literature to Persians. Their workmanship of various artifacts and woodwork was remarkable and used nationwide.

But, the most flourishing trade of theirs was Shawl and Carpet manufacturing.
Kashmir had been the destination of Bharatiya eloquence and this land had the potential of nurturing brilliant mindsets, hence, the complete demolition of its Hindu pride would carve the road to Islamic Bharat. Emperor Aurangzeb did not leave any stone unturned in accomplishing this and embraced cruel tactics.

During the regime of Subedar Iftaar Khan, the pundits of Kashmir were distressed beyond limit and at last, they urged for help from distinguished nationalist ShriGuru Teg Bahadur at nearby region of Punjab’s Anandpur Sahib. Five hundred Pandits under the leadership of Pandit Kruparam Dutt appealed to ShriGuru Tegbahadur in following verses :

बांही असाडी पकरिए, गुरु हरगोबिन्द के चन्द।

हमरो बल अब रहयो नहीं काई, हे गुरुतेगबहादुर राई।

गज के बंधन काटन हारे, तुम गुरु नानक है अवतारे।

जिन दरोपति राखी लाज, दियो सवार सुदामै काज।

तुम कलयुग के कृष्ण मुरारी, नाम रहे सदीव तऊ, पुरो जन की आस।

Viz :

“Hey, Guru Hargobind”s son Guru Tegbahadur, now, We do not have any more strength left within us. Please hold our hand. You are emancipator of the world, You are the incarnation of Guru Nanak. Shri Krishna had rescued Draupadi when her dignity was attacked and restored Brahmin Sudama’s malfunctioned state of affairs. Similarly, You are Krishna Murari of present times. Please fulfill the people’s wish. Your name will become immortal.”
(Mentioned in Shaheed Vilas, page 60 by Gyaani Gurja Sinh and Gyaani Gyaan Sinh in Shri Gurugranth Prakash. The Hindi translation was published in the weekly Paanchjanya in Sept 1999)

ShriGuru Tegbahadur was moved to hear the appeal by Pandit Kruparam Dutt and the chivalry of Kshatriya, arose exhilarating the flutter of gratification, within him. His eighth year’s old son enquired, witnessing him in the deep thought and he explained to Gobindsinh that sacrifice of an eminent personality is essential to save the Hindu society.

The son was dedicated to nationalism just like his father and thus, replied immediately, that who else than him, was the appropriate personality?

Hearing this poignant expression of child Gobind Singh, ShriGuru Tegbahadur shed off the irresoluteness from his heart took a plunge to sacrifice himself to rescue Janeu and Tilak.


This resolution changed the direction of history and carved a new path for nationalism.

ShriGuru Tegbahadur conveyed to Aurangzeb through Pandits that if he could convert Tegbahadur into the Islamic fold, all the Hindus would accept and convert. Aurangzeb was thrilled beyond words as he believed he was on the verge of accomplishment of his duty and there was no looking back, now. He ordered the Kashmir’s Subedar Iftaar Khan to stop the conversions as it was an attainable task, now. He had to just convert a single person and all others would naturally follow the suit.

Receiving the invite from Emperor Aurangzeb, ShriGuru Tegbahadur began his journey towards Delhi from Anandpur Sahib with five of his disciples. They were captured near Delhi and presented before Aurangzeb in his court.

On meeting him, ShriGuru Tegbahadur roared like Lion that he would not convert and enforcement of conversion is against humanity. He added that Mughal rule walks on the pathway of immorality. Following his instructions, is humiliating Bharat and colossal Hindu society. He said that he opposes this horrendous sin with conviction.

Witnessing the courage and devotion toward one’s own religious beliefs, Aurangzeb was aghast.

He kept only two options before $hriGuru Tegbahadur.

Islam or Death.
ShriGuru opted for the second option and decided to self-sacrifice for the nation and religion.

Responding to the invoke of five hundred Kashmiri Hindu brothers and considering their miseries as that of the entire Hindu community, he marched ahead to set an example, for coming centuries.

He invoked the entire Hindu fraternity to unite, acquire strength and get equipped and assemble to attain martyrdom on the altar of nationalist values. Moreover, the Colossus ShriGuru Tegbahadur belonged to Punjab but he immediately stood by the request from Kashmiri Pandits and sacrificed himself for a larger goal of national unity.

This is a perfect portrayal of deep-rooted national integrity. Unfortunately, the fallacy of Bharat, being just the union of separately ruled regions, has been propagated widely by the left-leaning historians and more, unfortunately, grabbed by some political outfits for their political gains. The truth is, Bharatvarsh, from the ancient pre-Vedic era, has been strongly linked and associated with each other, under the basic unifying source – Hindu cultural values.

ShriGuru ‘s unmatched unflinching address has been mentioned in “ShriGuru Pratap Suraj” on page 12,34,36,64.

“तीन ते सुनि श्री तेगबहादुर, धरम निबाइनी बिखै बहादुर।

उत्तर भन्यो, धरम हम हिन्दू, अति प्रिय को किम करही निकंदू।

लोक प्रलोक, बिखै सुखदानी, आन न पैय्याती जाही समानी।

मतिमलिन मुरख मति जोई, इस को त्यागहि पामर ते सोई।

दिन दुनी महि दुःख को पावै, जम सजाई दे नहि त्रिपतावे।

सुमतिवंत हम, कहूं क्यों त्यागहि, धरम राखिबे नित अनुराग्रही।।


Reciprocating to Aurangzeb’s zealot expressions, the valiant Tegbahadur said – We are Hindus and how do We banish our beloved Hindu religion? Our Hindu religion gives us happiness on earth and heaven, both. There seems no other religion than Hinduism. Any augean-minded and ignoramus person who thinks about quitting it, is surely servile. Such a person inevitably gets immense sorrows in this world and Yamraaj too feels every possible punishment is less. Why would we even think about renouncing our religion? Safeguarding our grand religion, is absolutely oestrus, forever.

Post-ShriGuru Tegbahadur ‘s outright denial to follow Aurangzeb’s path, the brutality beyond words, began on ShriGuru and his followers. They were tied to hot Iron poll, hot sand thrown in their bodies, wounding their bodies… The atrocities went on for days.

Yet, none of them were distracted, thus frustrated Emperor Aurangzeb ordered to callously kill them!

Following the royal Kazi’s fatwa, the first colleague, Bhaidayal was mercilessly drowned in the vessel of boiling water. The second colleague, Satidaas was tied to the cotton bundle and burnt alive. The third colleague Matidaas was ripped off by a saw.

After the martyrdom of the three, ShriGuru Tegbahadur was beheaded tyrannically. Before being murdered, he recited the first five stanzas of the pious tome Japuji Saheb and later, with tranquillity left for heavenly abode, demolishing the fanatic haughtiness of Aurangzeb.

It is such a pitiable irony that ShriGuru Tegbahadur martyred his life for securing Kashmiri Hindus but in recent times, ShriGuru Tegbahadur’s few the corrupt descendants are supporting those who are disrupting the very existence of Kashmiri Hindus in their own motherland. Their dishonorable act is a blot on the supreme sacrifice of ShriGuru.

The unparalleled self-sacrifice of ShriGuru Tegbahadur awakened a gale of Hindutva and Hindu pride. Guru Gobind Singh in Punjab, Rana Rajsinh in Rajasthan, Chatrapati Shivaji in South and West, and Chatrsaal in East, did not let the wicked dream of Aurangzeb be fulfilled. The national uprising against the Delhi throne resulted in creating a cerement of Mughal rule. The barbaric rule of Aurangzeb led to ruination of Mughals empire. Post Aurangzeb’s death, several regions of Bharat declared themselves independent but Kashmir remained under the Mughal regime. Deputy Subedar Mir Ahmad Khan governed Kashmir as Mughal representative. His policies were less harsh towards Hindus but the religious conversion went on at a slower pace.
Sources of Information:


हमारी भूलोका स्मारक : धर्मांतरित कश्मीर

नरेंद्र सहगल

जम्मू कश्मीर की अनकही कहानी

कुलदीप चंद अग्निहोत्री

काश्मीर : दहकते अंगारे

जगमोहन जी

Kashmir: Behind the Vale

M J Akbar

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